Frontline workers have the discretion to extend public services beyond their formal job requirements, yet little is known about the influence of client characteristics on this behaviour. Using a large-scale conjoint design with 1,507 Danish high-school teachers, we uncover how teachers willingly exceed their job expectations when encountering students who demonstrate effort (e.g. handing in assignments) or low well-being (e.g. feeling lonely). However, their willingness diminishes as requested behaviours deviate further from job expectations. Our study highlights the factors driving extra-role behaviours and underscore the importance of recognizing ‘invisible frontline work’.
About this publication
Published inPublic Management Review